Several types of health care professionals may become involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of dizziness and balance disorders. Below are brief descriptions of some of these specialties.
If you decide to use our online directory of vestibular disorder specialists to find a doctor for a second opinion, you might find it helpful to know that some doctors have more specialized training than others, and therefore might be better able to help you. Below is a brief description of some of the specialists involved with treating vestibular disorders.
- Physical Therapist
- Occupational Therapist
An Otolaryngologist (also known as an ENT, or ear, nose, and throat doctor) are physicians and surgeons who diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat, and related structures.
Otologists/Neurotologists are otolaryngologists who have completed 1-2 years of additional training. They specialize in the ear and its connections to the brain. Evaluation by an otologist/neurotologist is appropriate when a person has been seen by a primary care physician or otolaryngologist/ENT, but needs a further opinion or a more specific diagnosis.
A Neurologist diagnoses and treats disorders of the brain and nervous system. They do not perform surgery, but they can recommend surgical treatment by an otolaryngologist, neurotologist, or neurosurgeon. Neurologists have at least three years of specialized training following medical school and a one-year internship.
An Otoneurologist is a neurologist with additional years of specialized training. They approach dizziness and balance disorders from the brain outward instead of from the ear in toward the brain (as in neurotologists). Like neurologists, they do not perform surgery but can recommend surgical treatment by other specialists.
Physical therapists (PTs) are highly-educated, licensed health care professionals who can help patients reduce pain and improve or restore mobility by teaching them how to prevent or manage their condition so that they will achieve long-term health benefits. Physical Therapists who provide vestibular rehabilitation have taken advanced classes to help people with inner ear balance problems retrain their brain and body to understand the different balance signals so that they can walk better and function better. Degrees: PT, MPT, DPT, tDPT, DPTSc, MSPT, NCS among others. Professional Associations: American Physical Therapy Association.
An occupational therapist (OT) is a health-care professional responsible for helping patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapists work one-on-one with patients, developing a customized therapy program whose goal is improved quality of life and independence by ameliorating the physical, mental, emotional and social sources of a patient's disability. The word "occupation" comes from the belief that we all have occupational roles that contribute to who we are (e.g mother, son, spouse, employee). Occupational therapy gives patients the skills that are needed to live independent and satisfying lives.
Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in eye and vision care. They are trained to provide all elements of eye care including prescribing glasses and contact lenses, treating diseases of the eye, and performing eye surgery. Degrees: MD, DO.
An optometrist is a doctor who examines the eyes to determine visual acuity and eye health. Optometrists are specifically educated and trained by an accredited optometry college in a four year course, but have not attended medical school. They are state licensed to examine the eyes and to determine the presence of vision problems. They prescribe spectacles and contact lenses to improve visual acuity, medications to treat eye diseases and in some cases perform specific surgeries. Degrees: OD.
Neuro-ophthalmologists are ophthalmologists with a subspecialty that focuses on vision problems that are related to the nervous system, including the optic nerve and visual pathways. Neuro-ophthalmology is typically a nonsurgical subspecialty; it can, however, include surgery of the eye and orbit. Degrees: MD, DO.
Psychiatrists are medical doctors specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illness. Their training focuses on the relationship between emotional illness and other medical illnesses; their training qualifies them to distinguish between physical and psychological causes of symptoms. They can order medical and neurological psychological testing, and can dispense medication and provide counseling therapy. Degrees: MD, DO.
Psychologists have a doctoral degree in psychology in the study of the mind and behavior. They can order neurological psychological testing and perform counseling therapy and behavior modification therapy. They cannot dispense medication but often coordinate with psychiatrists for such medical intervention. Degrees: PhD or PsyD.
Audiologists hold a master's or doctoral degree. In the US, they are not trained as medical doctors. They perform auditory and vestibular testing, and are trained in prevention, identification, assessment, and non-medical treatment of hearing disorders. They work closely with medical doctors and hearing aid manufacturers. Most jurisdictions require licensure to practice. Degrees: PhD, EdD, AuD, or MS, among others.
A chiropractor treats disorders related to the nervous system by manipulating the musculoskeletal system, primarily by making adjustments to the spine, but also through physical therapy, lifestyle counseling, and dietary recommendations. Chiropractic neurology is a specialty field within the chiropractic profession, with a subspecialty focus in vestibular rehabilitation. Chiropractic neurology deals with dysfunction of the nervous system by specific activation of parts of the nervous system depending on one's individual loss of neurological function. Becoming a doctor of Chiropractic (DC) requires a minimum of 2 years of college and 4 years in a school of chiropractic medicine.