Glossary

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

BPPV is a common vestibular disorder that causes vertigo, dizziness, and other symptoms due to debris that has collected within a part of the inner ear. This debris, called otoconia, is made up of small crystals of calcium carbonate (sometimes referred to informally as “ear rocks”). With head movement, the displaced otoconia shift, sending false signals to the brain.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

Vertigo

Dizziness characterized by a sense of spinning.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Vestibular Migraine

Migraine, a disorder usually associated with headache, is extremely common and can cause several vestibular symptoms. Studies suggest that about 25 percent of migraineurs experience dizziness or vertigo during attacks. Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) or Vestibular Migraine can occur with or without pain.

More info: Vestibular Migraine

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency

The vertebral and basilar arteries carry blood to the inner ear labyrinth, the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, and the brainstem. When blood flow through these vessels is restricted for any reason, it is called vertebrobasilar insufficiency. This is a common cause of vertigo in the elderly. The vertigo occurs suddenly without warning, usually lasts for several minutes, and can also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, and impaired vision.

More info: Types of Vestibular Disorders

Meniere’s Disease

Ménière’s disease is a vestibular disorder that produces a recurring set of symptoms as a result of abnormally large amounts of a fluid called endolymph collecting in the inner ear. The exact cause of Ménière’s disease is not known. The four classic symptoms are vertigo, tinnitus, a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear, and fluctuating hearing.

More info: Ménière’s Disease

Meclizine
Antivert

A medication (an antihistamine) used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system). May be used as part of the management of chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication

Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

A specialized form of therapy intended to alleviate both the primary and secondary problems caused by vestibular disorders. It is an exercise-based program primarily designed to reduce vertigo and dizziness, gaze instability, and/or imbalance and falls.

More info: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

Vestibular Neuritis

Disorder resulting from an infection that inflames the inner ear, specifically the vestibular branch of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, results in dizziness or vertigo, but no change in hearing.

More info: Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency (VBI)

Inadequate blood flow through the posterior part of the brain that is supplied by two vertebral arteries that merge to form the basilar artery. Symptoms are similar to some vestibular diagnoses, such as labyrinthitis, vestibular neuritis, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

More info: Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Screening

Promethazine
Phenergan

Antihistamine utilized to address chronic vertigo and motion sickness.

More info: Medication

Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD)

A vestibular disorder that includes sensations of rocking, unsteadiness, and/or dizziness with vertigo lasting 3 months or more. Symptoms include non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that is increased by a person’s own motion, exposure to environments with a complex or moving stimuli (e.g., stores, crowds), and performance of tasks that required precise visual focus (e.g., reading, using a computer). PPPV is NOT a psychiatric disorder, but rather a neuro-otologic condition with behavioral elements.

More info: Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

Lorazepam
Ativan

A medication (a benzodiazepine) used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication

Labyrinthitis

Disorder resulting from an infection that inflames the inner ear, specifically the labyrinth, may result in hearing changes as well as dizziness or vertigo.

More info: Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis

Dimenhydrinate
Dramamine

Antihistamine used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease in vestibular function) with chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication

Diazepam
Valium

Benzodiazepine used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease in vestibular functioning) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication

Benzodiazepines

Class of medications utilized to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication

Antihistamine

Class of medications utilized to address chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication

View References
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https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anxiety/symptoms-causes/syc-20350961

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https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/agoraphobia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355987?utm_source=Google&utm_medium=abstract&utm_content=Agoraphobia&utm_campaign=Knowledge-panel

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NEUROANATOMY: AN ILLUSTRATED COLOUR TEXT: A.R.CROSSMAN AND D.NEARY. PUBLISHED BY CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 1995

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SHARON GUTMAN’S QUICK REFERENCE NEUROSCIENCE FOR REHABILITATION PROFESSIONALS, 2ND EDITION. SLACK INCORPORATED

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CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY made ridiculously simple, INTERACTIVE EDITION, EDITION 5, BY Stephen Goldberg, MD

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10991/

7

https://www.sralab.org/rehabilitation-measures/sensory-organization-test

8

https://www.physio-pedia.com/Base_of_Support