Act of refocusing on a visual image.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Without head pain.

Acoustic Neuroma

A serious but nonmalignant tumor that develops on the inner ear’s vestibulo-cochlear nerve, which transmits both balance and sound information to brain.

More info: Acoustic Neuroma


Fear of heights.

Activities Specific Balance Confidence (ABC)

A subjective assessment that examines how confident patients are when performing various tasks.


Sharpness of vision.

More info: Vision & Hearing


An anxiety disorder characterized by fear of situations, places, or locations that may cause panic, helplessness, or embarrassment.

More info: Psychology


Loss, or slowness, of movement.


Group of antibiotics that can produce vestibular or cochlear toxicity.


A portion of the inner ear and vestibular system–dilated ending of the semicircular canal containing the cupula.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Class of medications utilized to address chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication


Brand name of Meclizine.


A mental health disorder characterized by feelings of worry, anxiety, or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one’s daily activities.

More info: Psychology


Loss of skilled movements despite preservation of power, sensation and coordination.


Incoordination in movements, may impact various daily activities including walking and balance.


Brand name of Lorazepam.


A highly trained professional whose scope of practice includes identification, assessment and diagnosis of people with hearing and vestibular (balance) disorders.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


Test of hearing.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders


Related to hearing.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disorder

When a virus attacks, the immune system defends the body. When the immune system malfunctions, its defense capabilities sometimes mistake the body’s own cells for invading viruses or germs and attack them, which is referred to as autoimmunity. The immune system can attack the whole body or just certain systems, including the ear. When the ear is itself attacked, this is known as autoimmune inner ear disease.

More info: Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease


Increased hearing/perception of a person’s own voice, breathing or other self-generated sounds.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Balance System

The system of mechanisms in the body that helps to maintain balance.

More info: The Human Balance System

Base of Support (BOS)

The area beneath a person that includes all points of contact with the ground or other supporting surfaces.

More info: The Human Balance System

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

BPPV is a common vestibular disorder that causes vertigo, dizziness, and other symptoms due to debris that has collected within a part of the inner ear. This debris, called otoconia, is made up of small crystals of calcium carbonate (sometimes referred to informally as “ear rocks”). With head movement, the displaced otoconia shift, sending false signals to the brain.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)


Class of medications utilized to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication


Affecting both sides of the body.

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction (BVH)
Bilateral Vestibular Loss

Reduction or loss of vestibular function bilaterally results in difficulty maintaining balance, especially when walking in the dark or on uneven surfaces, and in a decrease in the patient’s ability to see clearly during head movements. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction and loss can occur as secondary to a number of different problems.

More info: Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

Bilateral Vestibular Loss (BVL)

Alternate name for Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction.

More info: Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction


Slowed movements.

Brain fog

When the brain is dedicating a great deal of energy to maintain equilibrium and stay steady, activities such as recalling details or short-term memory may become more difficult, and thinking might seem slow.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Caloric Testing

Component of ENG/VNG testing, intended to assess for asymmetric horizontal canal / superior vestibular nerve function, that involves irrigation of warm and cold water or air into the external auditory canal.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders

Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM)

Treatment intended to move displaced otoconia from the affected semicircular canal to the utricle-used in the treatment of BPPV.

More info: Canalith Repositioning Procedure (for BPPV)


Variant of BPPV where otoconia are free floating within the semicircular canal.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)


An easy to remember acronym for cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and vestibular areflexia syndrome.

More info: CANVAS Syndrome

Center of Gravity (COG)

The point in the body on which gravity acts, this point changes based on position and activity.

More info: The Human Balance System

Central Vestibular System

Parts of the central nervous system (brain and brainstem) that process information from the peripheral vestibular system about balance and spatial orientation.

More info: Central Vestibular Disorders


Head pain.

Cerebellar Degeneration (CD)

Degeneration of the nerve cells in the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for balance and coordination of limb and eye movements.


Portion of the brain that modulates balance, limb, and eye movements.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Cervicogenic Dizziness

People with cervicogenic dizziness tend to complain of dizziness or general disorientation (a sensation of movement of the self or the environment) that is often worse during head movements or after maintaining certain neck positions for a long time. Dizziness or lightheadedness usually occurs during or soon after experiencing neck pain, stiffness and/or decreased neck range of motion. It may be accompanied by an occipital (back of the head) headache and exacerbated by head movements, not by physical or cognitive activity.

More info: Cervicogenic Dizziness


A medical professional that treats disorders related to the nervous system by manipulating the musculoskeletal system, primarily by making adjustments to the spine, but also through exercise, lifestyle counseling, and dietary recommendations.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


Mass growing within a confined space, often the middle ear.

More info: Cholesteatoma


A disease or symptom that is long-lasting.

Chronic Subjective Dizziness (CSD)

Former name for Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness.


Chemotherapy agent with vestibular-toxic properties.

Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (CTSIB)

A balance test that may be performed to discover how your vestibular system is working with the other parts of your balance system.


Portion of the inner ear anatomy concerned with hearing.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Cochlear Implant

A prosthetic device that, unlike hearing aids which amplify sound, bypass the outer, middle, and inner ear and directly stimulate auditory nerve fibers.


Referring to the neck.


A decrease in vestibular symptoms as the brain recalibrates and fine tunes incoming signals from the inner ear.

More info: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP)

A test that measures postural stability, or the ability to maintain upright posture in different environmental conditions. Often used in vestibular assessment and treatment.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders


A brain injury caused by the head striking an object or a quick acceleration/deceleration of the head without any contact.

More info: Traumatic Brain Injury

Conductive Hearing Loss

Hearing loss produced by abnormalities of the outer ear or middle ear. These abnormalities create a hearing loss by interfering with the transmission of sound from the outer ear to the inner ear.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Moving the eyes toward one another to assist with clear vision.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Neurosurgical procedure to open the cranial cavity.

More info: Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction


A variant of BPPV in which the debris is stuck to the cupula of a semicircular canal rather than being loose within the canal.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)


A return of vestibular symptoms following compensation. Can be caused by different emotional and/or physical stressors.

More info: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)


Refers to a split or opening in a structure.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)


A feeling of detachment from your own body, thoughts, or feelings. Has been described as feeling like you are observing yourself from outside your own body, or like being in a dream.


Derealization is a mental state where you feel detached from your surroundings.


Benzodiazepine used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease in vestibular functioning) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication


Antihistamine used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease in vestibular function) with chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication


Double vision.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Unsteadiness, imbalance, or loss of equilibrium. Often accompanied by spatial disorientation (a sensation of not knowing where one’s body is in relation to the vertical and horizontal planes).

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Dix-Hallpike Maneuver
Barany Maneuver, Hallpike Maneuver

Testing procedure intended to identify anterior or posterior canal BPPV.

More info: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)


Non-specific term encompassing feelings of imbalance, spinning and lightheadedness.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI)

A subjective test that examines the impact of dizziness on an individual’s life and functioning.


Brand name of Dimenhydrinate.

Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)

A test that may be performed to examine an individual’s balance while walking under various conditions.

Dynamic Visual Accuity (DVA)

A clinical test that measures how well and clearly an individual can see when their head is in motion.


Subjective sense of unsteadiness.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Technique to detect the surface electrical activity of the brain.


Technique to determine the electrical activity of peripheral nerves.

Electronystagmography (ENG)

Measurement of eye movements with electrodes surrounding the eye.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders



More info: Vestibular Symptoms


The fluid within the semicircular canals and vestibule.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA)

An enlarged vestibular aqueduct is usually accompanied by an enlargement of the endolymphatic duct and sac, which help maintain the volume and ionic composition of endolymph necessary for transmitting hearing and nerve signals to the brain. When EVA causes hearing loss or balance symptoms, it is referred to as enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS).

More info: Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA)

Epley Maneuver

Treatment designed to address posterior canal BPPV.

More info: Canalith Repositioning Procedure (for BPPV)


Maintenance of gaze on a single location.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Frenzel goggles

Utilized to block gaze fixation with the use of magnified lenses and illumination.

More info: Peripheral Vestibular System

Fukuda Step Test

Postural control test utilized to uncompensated unilateral vestibular loss.


Perception of pressure.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Gaze Evoked Nystagmus (GEN)

Nystagmus that occurs when an individual is looking at a fixed point.


Antibiotic with vestibular-toxic properties.


An acquired tolerance gained by repeated exposure to a particular stimulus. Habituation exercises may be performed as part of vestibular rehabilitation therapy if a patient has a sensitivity to certain movements or activities.

More info: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

Head-Shaking induced Nystagmus (HSN)

Nystagmus that occurs following a slow shaking of the head.


Loss of sight affecting one half of the visual field (e.g. bitemporal hemianopia).

More info: Vision & Hearing


A regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.

More info: Hormones


Distention of the labyrinth with fluid, a likely component of Meniere’s Disease.

More info: Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops (SEH)


Abnormally acute hearing.

More info: Vestibular Hyperacusis


Something of unknown cause.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Observable unsteadiness.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Inner ear

The semicircular canals and cochlea, which form the organs of balance and hearing and are embedded in the temporal bone.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Invisible illness

This is an umbrella term for any medical condition that is not easily visible to others, often applies to vestibular disorders and the symptoms may be hard to see from the outside.


Inability to perceive your own movements.


Perception of movement.


Complex system of chambers and passageways of the inner ear anatomy. Includes both the hearing and balance portions of the inner ear.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Disorder resulting from an infection that inflames the inner ear, specifically the labyrinth, may result in hearing changes as well as dizziness or vertigo.

More info: Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis


Tendency to fall to the side.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Drowsiness, fatigue, feeling tired.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Feeling of faintness.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


A medication (a benzodiazepine) used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system) with acute vertigo.

More info: Medication


Sensory epithelium contains hair cells that are stimulated by linear acceleration and deceleration within the otolithic organs.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Mal de Debarquement (MdDS)

Mal de débarquement literally means “sickness of disembarkment.” This term originally referred to the illusion of movement felt as an aftereffect of travel by ship or boat. Some experts now include other types of travel, such as by train and airplane, and situations with new and different movement patterns, such as reclining on a waterbed.

More info: Mal de Débarquement


Bony prominence at the base of the skull behind the ear, containing air spaces that connect with the middle ear cavity.

More info: Ear Anatomy


A medication (an antihistamine) used to promote vestibular sedation (decrease the activity of the vestibular system). May be used as part of the management of chronic vertigo or motion sickness.

More info: Medication

Meniere’s Disease

Ménière’s disease is a vestibular disorder that produces a recurring set of symptoms as a result of abnormally large amounts of a fluid called endolymph collecting in the inner ear. The exact cause of Ménière’s disease is not known. The four classic symptoms are vertigo, tinnitus, a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear, and fluctuating hearing.

More info: Ménière’s Disease

Middle Ear

Air-filled cavity containing the ossicles and tympanic membrane. Transfers sound energy from the outer ear to the cochlea of the inner ear.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

A disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. mTBI may lead to vestibular symptoms.

More info: Traumatic Brain Injury

Mixed hearing loss

Hearing loss produced by abnormalities in both the conductive and sensorineural mechanisms of hearing.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Motion Sensitivity Quotient (MSQ)

A clinical test performed to examine an individual’s sensitivity to various movements and body motions.

Motion sickness

The nausea, disorientation and fatigue that can be induced by head motion.

More info: Motion Sickness

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

An autoimmune disease of the brain and spinal cord that may cause vestibular and/or balance systems symptoms, such as imbalance and problems walking.


Ophthalmologists with a subspecialty that focuses on vision problems that are related to the nervous system, including the optic nerve and visual pathways.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


Diagnoses and treats disorders of the brain and nervous system. They do not perform surgery, but they can recommend surgical treatment by an otolaryngologist, neurotologist, or neurosurgeon.

More info: Healthcare Specialties

Neuronal Hearing Loss

Hearing deficit resulting from damage to the vestibular cochlear nerve.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Disease of nerve cells, can be the cause of decreased sensation in the limbs which may further complicate balance for those with vestibular disorders.


Involuntary, alternating, rapid and slow movements of the eyeballs.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Occupational Therapist

A health-care professional responsible for helping patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


Pertaining to the eyes or vision.

More info: Vision & Hearing


Weakness of one or more of the eye muscles that control eye movement .

More info: Vision & Hearing


Eye movements that occur in response to sustained rotations of objects that encompass a large portion of the visual field.


A doctor who examines the eyes to determine visual acuity and eye health.

More info: Healthcare Specialties

Orthostatic Tremor

Rhythmical muscle contractions present with standing.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Inability for eyes to focus on an object when a person’s body and/or head is moving, people may experience blurred or “jumping” vision.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Middle ear bones (malleus, incus and stapes) that transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ears.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Pain in the ear.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Calcium carbonate crystals embedded within the maculae within the otolith organs.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Physicians and surgeons who diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat, and related structures.

More info: Healthcare Specialties

Otolith Organs

Refers to the utricle and saccule of the inner ear.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Otologists/Neurotologists are otolaryngologists who have completed 1-2 years of additional training. They specialize in the ear and its connections to the brain. Evaluation by an otologist/neurotologist is appropriate when a person has been seen by a primary care physician or otolaryngologist/ENT, but needs a further opinion or a more specific diagnosis.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


A neurologist with additional years of specialized training. They approach dizziness and balance disorders from the brain outward instead of from the ear in toward the brain (as in neurotologists).

More info: Healthcare Specialties


The abnormal growth of bone of the inner ear which prevents structures within the ear from working properly and causes different types of hearing loss. In addition to hearing loss, some people with otosclerosis experience dizziness and balance problems.

More info: Otosclerosis


Ototoxicity (“ear poisoning”) is due to exposure to drugs or chemicals that damage the inner ear or the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, which sends balance and hearing information from the inner ear to the brain. Ototoxicity can result in temporary or permanent disturbances of hearing, balance, or both.

More info: Ototoxicity

Oval Window

Oval-shaped opening from the middle ear into the inner ear.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Tingling sensations, “pins and needles” feeling.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Recurrent and sudden intensification of symptoms.


The fluid that fills the space between the semicircular canals and vestibule (utricle and saccule) and the surrounding bone.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Perilymph Fistula
Perilymphatic Fistula

A tear or defect in one of the small, thin membranes that separate the middle ear from the fluid-filled inner ear. When a fistula is present, changes in middle ear pressure will directly affect the inner ear, stimulating the balance and/or hearing structures and causing symptoms.

More info: Perilymph Fistula

Peripheral vestibular system

Parts of the inner ear anatomy that are concerned with balance and body orientation; consists of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Peripheral in this context means outside the central nervous system (brain and brainstem), to which the peripheral system sends information.

More info: Peripheral Vestibular System

Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD)

A vestibular disorder that includes sensations of rocking, unsteadiness, and/or dizziness with vertigo lasting 3 months or more. Symptoms include non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that is increased by a person’s own motion, exposure to environments with a complex or moving stimuli (e.g., stores, crowds), and performance of tasks that required precise visual focus (e.g., reading, using a computer). PPPD is NOT a psychiatric disorder, but rather a neuro-otologic condition with behavioral elements.

More info: Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness


Brand name of Promethazine.


Fear/sensitivity to sound.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Fear/sensitivity to light.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Physical Therapist

Physical therapists (PTs/DPTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) are licensed healthcare providers who optimize physical function, movement, performance, health, quality of life, and well-being across the lifespan.  PTs who practice vestibular rehabilitation have undergone advanced training to address the care of patients with dizziness.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


A research study where one group of participants receives a fake treatment, the results of which are compared with the real treatment.

More info: Getting Involved In Research

Positioning maneuvers

A series of monitored, sequential, accurate movements of the head through space, employed to treat BPPV.

More info: Single Treatment Maneuvers for BPPV

Prism lenses/glasses

A special type of glasses that may be used to help correct deficits in binocular vision.

More info: Binocular Vision Correction


Antihistamine utilized to address chronic vertigo and motion sickness.

More info: Medication


The detection of position and movement of body parts.


Medical doctors specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illness. Their training focuses on the relationship between emotional illness and other medical illnesses; their training qualifies them to distinguish between physical and psychological causes of symptoms.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


Healthcare specialists who have a doctoral degree in the study of the mind and behavior. They can order neurological psychological testing and perform counseling therapy and behavior modification therapy.

More info: Healthcare Specialties


The feeling of being pulled in a certain direction.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Randomized Study

A research study where participants are randomly assigned to a group that will either get the experimental treatment or the placebo.

More info: Getting Involved In Research


An involuntary motion resulting from a stimulus.

Roll Test

Maneuver intended to identify horizontal canal BPPV.

Round Window

Membrane-covered opening between the inner ear and the middle ear.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Abrupt, rapid movement of both eyes utilized to change the point of fixation (the point that the eyes are looking at).


Sac-like inner ear organ containing otoliths which senses vertical motion of the head.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Solid, usually benign tumor derived from Schwann cells.

More info: Acoustic Neuroma

Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops (SEH)

A disorder of the inner ear that involves abnormalities in the quantity, composition, and pressure of an inner-ear fluid called endolymph, apparently in response to an event or underlying condition such as head trauma or ear surgery. It can occur with other inner ear disorders, allergies, or systemic disorders.

More info: Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops (SEH)


Sudden disturbance of consciousness of sensorimotor function.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Semicircular Canal (SCC)

Circular, fluid-filled, ducts within the vestibular organ responsible; structure promotes the detection of angular accelerations.

More info: Ear Anatomy

Semont Maneuver

Treatment designed to address posterior canal BPPV, canalithiasis or cupulolithiasis.

More info: Single Treatment Maneuvers for BPPV

Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL)

Hearing loss produced by abnormalities of the cochlea or the auditory nerve or of the nerve pathways that lead beyond the cochlea to the brain.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Sensory Organization Test (SOT)

A test used to assess an individual’s ability to use all parts of the balance system in order to maintain balance in a variety of conditions.

Single Limb Stance (SLS)

Standing on one leg, may be used to test balance.

Smooth Pursuit

The process of the eyes focused on a moving target.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Spatial Disorientation

Decreased ability of the human vestibular, visual and somatosensory systems to determine the internal representation of space and subjective body orientation in three-dimensional coordinates, in order to determine body position relative to visual space, which is a necessary prerequisite for accurate motor response.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


Surgical removal of the stapes followed by prosthetic replacement.

More info: Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction

Static Visual Acuity (SVA)

The ability to clearly see an object when the head is not moving.

Superior Canal Dehiscence (SCD)

Alternate name for Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence.

More info: Third Window Syndrome

Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)
Superior Canal Dehiscence

A syndrome resulting from an opening (dehiscence) in the bone overlying the superior (uppermost) semicircular canal within the inner ear. With this dehiscence, the fluid in the membranous superior canal (which is located within the tubular cavity of the bony canal) can be displaced by sound and pressure stimuli, creating certain vestibular and/or auditory signs and symptoms.

More info: Third Window Syndrome


Loss of consciousness.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Temporal Bone

Portion of the skull containing the inner ear anatomy.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Blood clot.

Timed Up and Go (TUG)

A balance test that assesses how quickly and safely an individual is able to stand, walk a short distance, turn around, and sit back down.


Abnormal noise perceived in one or both ears or in the head.

More info: Tinnitus


Trembling of head or limbs.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms


An event or circumstance or substance that is the cause of something (typically a symptom when dealing with vestibular disorders).

Tulio’s Phenomena

Vestibular symptoms elicited by sound.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Tympanic membrane

Structure of the ear that separates the external ear canal from the middle-ear air cavity.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Affecting only one side of the body.

Unilateral Vestibular Loss (UVL)

Loss of vestibular function due to damage to one (not both) vestibular organs.


Otolithic organ that primarily detects horizontal linear accelerations.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Brand name of Diazepam.

Valsalva Maneuver

Attempt to forcibly exhale with the glottis, nose and mouth closed.


Movement of the eyes in opposite directions used in adjusting to near or far vision.

More info: Vision & Hearing

Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency (VBI)

Inadequate blood flow through the posterior part of the brain that is supplied by two vertebral arteries that merge to form the basilar artery. Symptoms are similar to some vestibular diagnoses, such as labyrinthitis, vestibular neuritis, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

More info: Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Screening

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency

The vertebral and basilar arteries carry blood to the inner ear labyrinth, the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, and the brainstem. When blood flow through these vessels is restricted for any reason, it is called vertebrobasilar insufficiency. This is a common cause of vertigo in the elderly. The vertigo occurs suddenly without warning, usually lasts for several minutes, and can also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, and impaired vision.

More info: Types of Vestibular Disorders


Dizziness characterized by a sense of spinning.

More info: Vestibular Symptoms

Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs)

A laboratory test of saccular / inferior vestibular nerve function.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders

Vestibular Migraine

Migraine, a disorder usually associated with headache, is extremely common and can cause several vestibular symptoms. Studies suggest that about 25 percent of migraineurs experience dizziness or vertigo during attacks. Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) or Vestibular Migraine can occur with or without pain.

More info: Vestibular Migraine

Vestibular Neuritis

Disorder resulting from an infection that inflames the inner ear, specifically the vestibular branch of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, results in dizziness or vertigo, but no change in hearing.

More info: Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis

Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

A specialized form of therapy intended to alleviate both the primary and secondary problems caused by vestibular disorders. It is an exercise-based program primarily designed to reduce vertigo and dizziness, gaze instability, and/or imbalance and falls.

More info: Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT)

Vestibular System

The portion of the balance system that provides sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation. Information is provided by the vestibular apparatus which is located in each ear and includes the utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals.

More info: The Human Balance System

Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential

Laboratory test of saccular / inferior vestibular nerve function.

More info: Tinnitus

Vestibular-Ocular Reflex (VOR)

A reflex that coordinates the visual and vestibular system to assist in clear vision and balance.

More info: The Connection between Vision & Balance

Vestibulocochlear nerve

Nerve that carries information from the inner ear to the brain. Also called the eighth cranial nerve, auditory nerve, or acoustic nerve.

More info: Ear Anatomy


Unspecified disease to the vestibular organ.

More info: General Vestibulopathy

Videonystagmography (VNG)

Measurement of eye movements with the use of video.

More info: Tests For Diagnosing Vestibular Disorders

Visual fixation

Maintaining visual focus on the same point.






  5. CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY made ridiculously simple, INTERACTIVE EDITION, EDITION 5, BY Stephen Goldberg, MD