Get Informed

vertigo stonesEducating yourself about your vestibular disorder can help you better manage symptoms and communicate more effectively with family, friends, and health professionals. VEDA produces free publications that are written or reviewed by vestibular disorder professionals spanning a wide range of subjects. Following is a list of VEDA’s most popular short publications, which can be printed out for personal or individual use.

VEDA has published three books, which you can purchase through our online store. Topics include BPPV, Meniere’s Disease, and “Balancing Act” – a general resource on balance disorders. We also have a DVD available, with segments on managing symptoms, cognitive & psychological impacts, diagnosis & treatment.

If you would like to link a VeDA publication to your personal site, please acknowledge us with the phrase “from the Vestibular Disorders Association (VEDA).” For information about how to cite from these articles in your own publication, download our permissions guide.


The Human Balance System: A Complex Coordination of Central and Peripheral Systems

How the balance system uses sensory input from the eyes, muscles and joints, and inner ear to maintain balance and stable vision.

Causes of Dizziness

Vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium are defined; common causes are explained.

Vestibular Disorders: An Overview

Describes the function of the vestibular system and symptoms and causes of damage to it; defines specific types of vestibular disorders; and reviews common diagnostic tests and treatments.

Vestibular Injury: Compensation, Decompensation, and Failure to Compensate

An explanation of how the balance system recovers from injury through the compensation process; acute (immediate) and chronic (long-term) compensation; causes of decompensation and failure to compensate; use of medication and vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

How Do I Know If I Have a Balance Disorder?

Describes the difference between dizziness, vertigo, and disequilibrium. Suggests questions a person might ask to help him or her decide whether to seek medical help for a balance problem or dizzy spell.

Possible Symptoms of a Vestibular Disorder

A quick reference for possible symptoms associated with inner ear balance disorders, including balance, vision, hearing, and cognitive issues.

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Diagnostic Tests for Vestibular Problems

Descriptions and explanations of the purpose of various tests, including ENG (electro- videonystagmography), rotation tests, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), audiometry, and scans (MRI, CT).

Trouble Getting a Diagnosis?

A list of reasons why many people with dizziness, imbalance, or vertigo have trouble obtaining a diagnosis, along with suggestions for speeding up the diagnostic process.

Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy—An Effective, Evidence-Based Treatment

Describes the specialized form of exercise-based physical therapy designed to alleviate both primary and secondary symptoms of vestibular disorders. Includes descriptions of assessments of vision and eye movements, balance and gait, vertigo, and the musculoskeletal system; vestibular habituation, and balance retraining exercises. Dietary Considerations with Endolymphatic Hydrops, Ménière’s Disease, and Vestibular Migraine Dietary strategies for regulating inner-ear fluid balances; tips for reducing salt and sugar intake; examples of dietary migraine triggers, and a tip sheet for dining out.

Surgery for Peripheral Vestibular Disorders

Descriptions of surgical procedures used to repair or stabilize vestibular organs damaged by disease or injury. Procedures discussed include vestibular neurectomy, labyrinthectomy, transtympanic or intratympanic gentamicin treatment, endolymphatic sac decompression, oval or round window plugging, canal partitioning, PE tubes, and stapedectomy.

Pharmacologic Treatments for Vestibular Disorders

There are five basic treatment options for vestibular disorders: repositioning manuevers, vestibular rehabilitation exercises, surgery, medication, and psychotherapeutic measures. This paper looks in detail at pharmacological treatments for different types of vestibular disorders used to treat the cause of the disease, control symptoms, accelerate central compensation, and diminish psychological comorbidity.

Common Misconceptions About ENG

Electronystagmography (ENG) has been the cornerstone of vestibular testing for more than fifty years. Yet there is some confusion about the extent and limitations of the information that can be obtained from an ENG examination. ENG refers to a battery of tests that examine specific aspects of the vestibular system. This battery consists of oculomotor tests, positioning and positional tests, and the caloric test. This document discusses these tests and their role in planning a vestibular rehabilitation program.

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Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

Discusses the cause of dizziness and vertigo symptoms resulting from positional changes, symptoms, causes, assessment, and treatment.

Vestibular Neuritis and Labyrinthitis: Infections of the Inner Ear

Viral versus bacterial infections of the inner ear; onset and symptoms; testing; treatment during the acute and chronic phases, including medication and vestibular rehabilitation exercises.

Ménière’s Disease

Describes the recurring set of symptoms resulting from abnormally large amounts of a fluid called endolymph collecting in the inner ear. Discussion includes symptoms, stages, diagnosis, treatment, and coping.

Balance and Aging

Good balance requires reliable sensory input from the individual’s vision, vestibular system and proprioceptors. With age, a variety of diseases can affect these systems. Discusses how a tendency to fall and have symptoms of dizziness should not be dismissed as unavoidable consequences of aging but may be important signs of a disease that might be cured or controlled.

Pediatric Vestibular Disorders

Vestibular disorders in children are generally considered uncommon. A vestibular system that is damaged by disease or injury in childhood can slow development of equilibrium and protective reflexes and motor-control tasks such as sitting unsupported, standing and walking.

Perilymph Fistula

A perilymph fistula (PLF) is an abnormal connection (a tear or defect) in one or both of the small, thin membranes (the oval window and the round window) that separate the air filled middle ear and the fluid filled perilymphatic space of the inner ear. This small opening allows perilymph (fluid) to leak into the middle ear.

Secondary Endolymphatic Hydrops

Describes symptoms of secondary endolymphatic hydrops, treatment with a diet regimen, and other quality of life issues.

Migraine-Associated Vertigo (MAV) or Vestibular Migraine

Migraine is now understood to be a vascular and neural process that can occur with or without pain. Migraine and vestibular dysfunction are discussed, including the recognition of migraine syndromes, evaluation and testing, vestibular test results commonly observed in migraine-related dizziness patients, treatment, and migraine triggers.


Discusses ototoxicity (ear poisoning) due to drugs or chemicals that damage the inner ear or vestibulo-cochlear nerve, which sends balance and hearing information from the inner ear to the brain.

Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD): A Cause of Hearing and Balance Problems

Describes the vestibular and auditory symptoms and signs that can result from an opening (dehiscence) in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal. Also discusses causes and diagnosis and treatment options.

Mal de Debarquement

Describes the “sickness of disembarkment” that occurs for people who continue to feel an illusion of movement as an aftereffect of travel.

Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (EVAS)

Discusses the causes and prevalence of enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS) and the hearing and vestibular symptoms associated with it, including information about clinical evaluation and treatment considerations.


What happens to the brain and vestibular system after a concussion? This article discusses when recovery is complicated by vestibular involvement, and how vestibular rehabilitation can help.

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Vision Challenges with Vestibular Disorders

Explains the link between the vestibular system and vision, describing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in detail with information on evaluation, treatment, and coping strategies. Details the special considerations required for vision correction, including glasses and contact lenses.

Visual Preference and Vestibular Deficiency

A “Clinical Observations” column of VEDA’s member newsletter, “On the Level.” Discusses visual preference developed resulting from vestibular dysfunction, and provides suggestions for treating it.

Tinnitus—Ringing in the Ears: An Overview

Questions and answers about tinnitus, including terminology, causes and related factors, diagnosis and treatment options, and tips for prevention and reducing its severity.

Cochlear Hyperacusis and Vestibular Hyperacusis

Explains sound sensitivity, discusses symptoms that can include pain, dizziness, vertigo, imbalance, and others; causes; testing; and treatment options.

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Counseling for Chronic Illness – Ways Therapy Can Help

Chronic illness can strain your view of yourself, your relationships, your place in society, and your plans for the future. Psychotherapy (also known as ‘counseling’ or just ‘therapy’) is a valuable resource when you are struggling with these challenges. This publication provides general information about some of the different ways that therapy can be helpful.

The Psychology of Vestibular Disorders, Part I: The Cognitive Aspects of Vestibular Disorders

The purpose of these articles is to identify common psychological reactions/ phenomena associated with vestibular disorders and to suggest various coping strategies to improve functioning. The information is divided into two separate articles: the first will address cognitive aspects of vestibular disorders; the second will address emotional aspects of vestibular disorders. (Part II is coming soon.)

“It’s All in Your Head”: Addressing Vestibular Patients’ Stressors and Self Doubts

Identifies the issues associated with the subtle erosion of self-esteem often experienced by vestibular patients.

Coping with a Vestibular Disorder

This publication contains to articles: 1) “Coping with a Chronic Vestibular Disorder and Other Invisible Illnesses” by Molly-Jane Isaacson Rubinger, MSW, LICSW, and 2) Learning to Cope with Vestibular Disorders: Tips Offered by VEDA and support group leaders to the person who is new to vestibular disorders.

Fatigue, Stress and Responsibilities

This publication explains how one can learn to cope with the fatigue (and contributors to fatigue, including stress and pain) that often accompanies their chronic illness and offers strategies to manage stress.

Chronic Illness & Vulnerability

This publication discusses the inherant vulnerability present in people with chronic illnesses (such as vestibular disorders), and that by acknowledging our vulnerability we can develop compassion and acceptance.

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Desórdenes vestibulares

Síntomas, causas, diagnosis, tratamiento, incapacidad.

Síntomas posibles de los desórdenes vestibulares

Visión, audición, náusea, memoria, coordinación, emociones, y otros síntomas.

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Dietary Considerations

Many people with Ménière’s disease (also called primary idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops), secondary endolymphatic hydrops, or migraine-associated dizziness find that certain modifications in diet are helpful in managing their disorder.

Vestibular Disease in Dogs and Cats

Explains the signs of vestibular dysfunction in pets. Includes causes, prognosis, and treatments, including what owners can do to help their pets. Also includes a picture and link to one beloved dog’s story.

VEDA Members Ask About Research

Addresses questions about why research takes so long, describes the scientific method, provides information about helping research by becoming a research subject.

Improving Balance with Tai Chi

Discusses the benefits of using Tai Chi – a martial art characterized by gracefully flowing movements and postures – to improve balance.

Hormones and Vestibular Disorders

Explores some of the possible effects of hormones on inner ear disorders in women.

Balance Retraining

Exercises that can help speed recovery from dizziness and unsteadiness.

Controlling Your Symptoms

How to reduce dizziness and nausea from vestibular disorders.

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